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January 24-25, 2024 in Tallinn, Estonia

About 2024

Emerging technologies are rapidly changing the character of future warfare. The main goal for small countries should not be to describe and shape global strategic threats, but rather to be able to adapt quickly and respond effectively when facing possible threats. The applications of artificial intelligence (AI) and the vast variety of combinations of manned and unmanned systems and their completely new level of integration are the essential elements of warfare. In view of this, newly structured force capable of carrying out mosaic warfare is expected to appear on the battlefield in the future. Effects will become important features on the battlefield and this in turn will change significantly the tasks and roles of soldiers. As a result, there are increasing cognitive demands associated with the employment and use of new capabilities and deluge of information that appears in multi-sensor, virtual and augmented reality environments.


The main theme of the conference has been the challenges of military technology in a small country context. Sub-themes included the role of military AI in future conflicts and the challenges of joint operations and electronic warfare.  

The conference participants included security experts, representatives of the defence forces and defence industry, and researchers involved in the development of emerging and dual-use technologies. 

The conference covered the next topics:


• New players on the future battlefield  

• The role of military AI in future conflicts  

• Challenges and lessons learnt in military AI technology developments  

• Measures to increase survivability through electronic warfare technologies  

• Models for cooperation with small defence industries 


January 24-25, 2024   

TalTech Conference Centre, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn, Estonia 
The conference is moderated by Mr. Neeme Raud 

Wednesday, January 24 

07:45 - 09:15 Registration and morning coffee   

09:15 - 09:40 Welcome and Opening Remarks , Mr. Alar Karis, President of the Republic of Estonia
                           Welcome address, Prof. Tiit Land, Rector of Tallinn University of Technology 

09:40 - 10:25 Keynote: The Role of AI in Future Warfare – General (ret) Jörg Vollmer (Fraunhofer FKIE)   

10:25 - 11:10 Keynote: The Challenges of Military AI Development – Prof. Wolfgang Koch (University of Bonn, Fraunhofer FKIE)

11:10 - 11:40 Refreshment break   

11:40 - 12:10 From Science Fiction to Science Fact: Information Technology and the Modern Battlefield – Prof. Rain Ottis (TalTech)

12:10 - 12:40 Edge Computing and Embedded AI in Military Devices – Mairo Leier (TalTech)   

12:40 - 14:10 Lunch   

14:10 - 16:00 Posters and Demo Session    

16:00 - 16:30 Cooperation Models of the Defence Industry on the Example of Small States – Tarmo Kalvet (TalTech) & Illimar Ploom (Estonian Military Academy)

16:30 - 16:45 NATO Innovation Fund: Investing €1 Billion into Resilience and Defence – Kelly Chen (NIF)

16:45 - 17:30 Panel Discussion: Conclusions of the Day (Moderator Neeme Raud, Panelists: Day 1 speakers) 

19:30 - 23:00 Evening Reception  in the PROTO Invention Factory
                          Doors will be opened at 19:00, address: Peetri St 10 (in the Northern Tallinn). More under the Venue

Thursday, January 25 

09:30 - 10:00 Arrival and morning coffee 

10:00 - 10:45 Electronic Warfare: The present and the future – Kaarel Piip (Estonian Military Academy)  

11:00 - 13:00 Parallel sessions  

  • Decision-Centric Warfare vs Mosaic Warfare
    Moderator: Brig. Gen. Vahur Karus (Estonian Military Academy) 
    Presenters: Roger McDermott, Visiting Senior Research Fellow, Department of War Studies (School of Security Studies), King’s College London

  • Measures to Improve Survivability by Using the Concept of Electronic Warfare
    Moderator: Kaarel Piip (Estonian Military Academy) 

    Dr. Thomas Withington, Associate Fellow, Royal United Services Institute 
    Prof. Krzysztof Kulpa, Scientific Director UCBOiB, Warsaw University of Technology 
    Silver Andre, Chief Executive Officer, CR14 

  • The Development of Military AI Applications and Lessons Learned
    Moderators: Mairo Leier (TalTech) & Villiko Nurmoja (SensusQ)

13:00 - 14:30 Lunch  

14: 30 Parallel events

  • 14:30 - 15:35 Panel Discussion: Defence R&D Funding: Lessons for Small Countries
    Moderator: Neeme Raud
    Kadri Tammai, NATO-DIANA Estonia

    Martin Jõesaar, European Commission DG DEFIS

  • 14:30 - 17:00 Visits to Research Facilities 
    Time slots in each lab: 14:50-15.30 and 15:50-16:30, the labs are located in the TalTech campus, pre-registration is needed.

Keynote speakers
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General (ret) Jörg Vollmer

Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Koch

Prof. Rain Ottis

Dr. Mairo Leier

Fraunhofer FKIE, former Chief of the German Army and former Commander of Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum  

Fraunhofer FKIE/University of Bonn 

Professor of Cyber Operations and the Head of the Centre for Digital Forensics and Cyber Security in Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.

Tallinn University of Technology 

Conference Venue: 
Tallinn University of Technology (TalTech)  

Founded in 1918, TalTech is the flagship in engineering and IT science and education in Estonia, providing higher education at all levels in engineering and technology, information technology, economics, science, architecture and maritime. TalTech’s mission is to be a promoter of science, technology, and innovation and a leading provider of engineering and economic education in Estonia. TalTech is also becoming a modern digital campus that offers wide opportunities for smart city development and is a testing ground for Estonian companies to test their solutions. 

With its scenic location in Mustamäe, TalTech is the only campus-type university in the Baltic countries and one of the most compact university campuses in Europe. Campus is the scene of many communal activities, with a large number of students, cultural and sports events. The campus of TalTech includes the Mektory Innovation and Business Centre and the Tehnopol Tallinn Science Park, where scientists, students and entrepreneurs meet to solve practical product development problems and generate new ideas for the future.


Virtual Tour of TelTech campus

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